Urinary incontinence, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

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Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine. It is a common and distressing problem, which may have a large impact on quality of life.[1] It has been identified as an important issue in geriatric health care.[2] The term enuresis is often used to refer to urinary incontinence primarily in children, such as nocturnal enuresis (bed wetting).[3]

Pelvic surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause are major risk factors.[4] Urinary incontinence is often a result of an underlying medical condition but is under-reported to medical practitioners.[5] There are four main types of incontinence:[6]

Urge incontinence due to an overactive bladder
Stress incontinence due to “a poorly functioning urethral sphincter muscle (intrinsic sphincter deficiency) or to hypermobility of the bladder neck or urethra”[7]
Overflow incontinence due to either poor bladder contraction or blockage of the urethra
Mixed incontinence involve features of different other types

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