Urinary Incontinence in Women, Animation.

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Types of UI in Women: Stress incontinence, Urge incontinence and Overflow incontinence; Causes and Treatments. For patient education. This video is available for instant download licensing here :
©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. Voice by Sue Stern.
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Urinary incontinence is twice more common in women than in men. Pregnancy, childbirth, hormonal changes during menopause, and anatomy of the urinary tract account for this difference.
Urine is produced in the kidneys and stored in the urinary bladder. Urination is the process of emptying the bladder through the urethra that connects the urinary bladder to the external urethral orifice. There are two sphincters, or valves, that keep the urethra closed to prevent leak: internal urethral sphincter located at the neck of the bladder, and external urethral sphincter located right above the external urethral orifice and supported by the pelvic floor muscles. When the bladder is full, stretch receptors in the wall of the bladder send a signal to the spinal cord and the brain. At times when it’s not appropriate to urinate, the brain sends back an inhibitory signal to keep the sphincters closed and prevent voiding. When you wish to urinate, this inhibition is removed;
There are several types of urinary incontinence in women:
-Stress incontinence: urine leakage while sneezing, coughing, laughing or any activity that creates abdominal pressure on the bladder. In women, this typically happens as a result of pregnancy and childbirth during which these muscles are overstretched. Stress incontinence symptoms usually worsen during certain times of the menstrual cycle when estrogen level is low. Incidents also increase following menopause. This is by far the most common type of incontinence in women.
-Urge incontinence: need to void that cannot be deferred, inability to hold. This is commonly caused by an overactive bladder, a condition in which muscles in the wall of the bladder contract in an uncontrollable manner. The reason why this happens is unclear but it’s likely to involve problems in the nervous system.
-Overflow incontinence: constant dribbling of urine.
Treatment depends on the type of incontinence and severity of symptoms.
Lifestyle changes:
– Limit fluid intake at certain times of the day
– Cut down on caffeine, alcohol, keep a healthy weight.
– Try pelvic floor muscle exercises such as Kegel exercises.
– Timed voiding or bladder training therapy
Depending on the cause of incontinence the following types of drugs maybe prescribed:
– Anticholinergics:
– For stress incontinence topical estrogen may be applied
Non-surgical therapies for stress incontinence include:
– pessary:
– bulking agent injections
Surgical procedures include:
– Sacral nerve stimulation: A small pulse-generator device is implanted under the skin of the buttock; the device sends mild electrical impulses to the sacral nerve -the nerve that controls bladder activity- to moderate and control bladder spasms.
– Bladder suspension or sling procedures may be performed to create an artificial support for the bladder neck or urethral sphincters. These procedures usually involve tightening of the bladder neck or the urethra to strong ligaments within the pelvis or to the pubic bones.


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